Rowspans & colspans in css tables

Sleight of Hand and Absolute Positioning

Now, we can use absolute positioning to control the size and position of the with :


With the and properties both set to zero, the cell will stretch to fill the full height of the table, simulating a row span. Depending on the needs of your layout, you could use different values for and , or even set the cell’s directly to achieve other row-spanning layouts.

You also need to specify the width of the cell. Usually, the easiest way to do this is just to set its property, but depending what you know of the dimensions of surrounding table cells, you could also do this by setting and .

Since the positioned cell doesn’t actually span multiple rows of the table, the table must still contain a corresponding cell in each of the other rows. These cells are simply empty placeholders, though; note the with in the HTML code above. The function of this cell is to hold open the space that will be occupied by the “spanned” cell, so we must ensure its width matches the width we specified for the :

And that’s all there is to it! To complete the style sheet for this example, we need only set the appropriate property values, and add some borders so we can see what’s going on:

In essence, by using absolute positioning we are telling the browser, “Let me handle the layout of this table cell—you take care of the rest.” Here’s what the results look like:


Try it for yourself. This example works in all major browsers except for Internet Explorer 7, and also works in the current IE8 Beta 2 release.

What do you think? Can you see yourself switching to CSS tables for layout as your Internet Explorer users make the move to IE8?

HTML Теги

<!—…—><!DOCTYPE><a><abbr><acronym><address><applet><area><article><aside><audio><b><base><basefont><bdi><bdo><big><blockquote><body><br><button><canvas><caption><center><cite><code><col><colgroup><data><datalist><dd><del><details><dfn><dialog><dir><div><dl><dt><em><embed><fieldset><figcaption><figure><font><footer><form><frame><frameset><h1> — <h6><head><header><hr><html><i><iframe><img><input><ins><kbd><label><legend><li><link><main><map><mark><menu><menuitem><meta><meter><nav><noframes><noscript><object><ol><optgroup><option><output><p><param><picture><pre><progress><q><rp><rt><ruby><s><samp><script><section><select><small><source><span><strike><strong><style><sub><summary><sup><svg><table><tbody><td><template><textarea><tfoot><th><thead><time><title><tr><track><tt><u><ul><var><video>

HTML Reference

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<!—> <!DOCTYPE> <a> <abbr> <acronym> <address> <applet> <area> <article> <aside> <audio> <b> <base> <basefont> <bdi> <bdo> <big> <blockquote> <body> <br> <button> <canvas> <caption> <center> <cite> <code> <col> <colgroup> <data> <datalist> <dd> <del> <details> <dfn> <dialog> <dir> <div> <dl> <dt> <em> <embed> <fieldset> <figcaption> <figure> <font> <footer> <form> <frame> <frameset> <h1> — <h6> <head> <header> <hr> <html> <i> <iframe> <img> <input> <ins> <kbd> <label> <legend> <li> <link> <main> <map> <mark> <meta> <meter> <nav> <noframes> <noscript> <object> <ol> <optgroup> <option> <output> <p> <param> <picture> <pre> <progress> <q> <rp> <rt> <ruby> <s> <samp> <script> <section> <select> <small> <source> <span> <strike> <strong> <style> <sub> <summary> <sup> <svg> <table> <tbody> <td> <template> <textarea> <tfoot> <th> <thead> <time> <title> <tr> <track> <tt> <u> <ul> <var> <video> <wbr>

JavaScript

JS Array concat() constructor copyWithin() entries() every() fill() filter() find() findIndex() forEach() from() includes() indexOf() isArray() join() keys() length lastIndexOf() map() pop() prototype push() reduce() reduceRight() reverse() shift() slice() some() sort() splice() toString() unshift() valueOf()

JS Boolean constructor prototype toString() valueOf()

JS Classes constructor() extends static super

JS Date constructor getDate() getDay() getFullYear() getHours() getMilliseconds() getMinutes() getMonth() getSeconds() getTime() getTimezoneOffset() getUTCDate() getUTCDay() getUTCFullYear() getUTCHours() getUTCMilliseconds() getUTCMinutes() getUTCMonth() getUTCSeconds() now() parse() prototype setDate() setFullYear() setHours() setMilliseconds() setMinutes() setMonth() setSeconds() setTime() setUTCDate() setUTCFullYear() setUTCHours() setUTCMilliseconds() setUTCMinutes() setUTCMonth() setUTCSeconds() toDateString() toISOString() toJSON() toLocaleDateString() toLocaleTimeString() toLocaleString() toString() toTimeString() toUTCString() UTC() valueOf()

JS Error name message

JS Global decodeURI() decodeURIComponent() encodeURI() encodeURIComponent() escape() eval() Infinity isFinite() isNaN() NaN Number() parseFloat() parseInt() String() undefined unescape()

JS JSON parse() stringify()

JS Math abs() acos() acosh() asin() asinh() atan() atan2() atanh() cbrt() ceil() cos() cosh() E exp() floor() LN2 LN10 log() LOG2E LOG10E max() min() PI pow() random() round() sin() sqrt() SQRT1_2 SQRT2 tan() tanh() trunc()

JS Number constructor isFinite() isInteger() isNaN() isSafeInteger() MAX_VALUE MIN_VALUE NEGATIVE_INFINITY NaN POSITIVE_INFINITY prototype toExponential() toFixed() toLocaleString() toPrecision() toString() valueOf()

JS OperatorsJS RegExp constructor compile() exec() g global i ignoreCase lastIndex m multiline n+ n* n? n{X} n{X,Y} n{X,} n$ ^n ?=n ?!n source test() toString() (x|y) . \w \W \d \D \s \S \b \B \0 \n \f \r \t \v \xxx \xdd \uxxxx

JS Statements break class continue debugger do…while for for…in for…of function if…else return switch throw try…catch var while

JS String charAt() charCodeAt() concat() constructor endsWith() fromCharCode() includes() indexOf() lastIndexOf() length localeCompare() match() prototype repeat() replace() search() slice() split() startsWith() substr() substring() toLocaleLowerCase() toLocaleUpperCase() toLowerCase() toString() toUpperCase() trim() valueOf()

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HTML Теги

<!—…—> <!DOCTYPE> <a> <abbr> <acronym> <address> <applet> <area> <article> <aside> <audio> <b> <base> <basefont> <bdi> <bdo> <big> <blockquote> <body> <br> <button> <canvas> <caption> <center> <cite> <code> <col> <colgroup> <data> <datalist> <dd> <del> <details> <dfn> <dialog> <dir> <div> <dl> <dt> <em> <embed> <fieldset> <figcaption> <figure> <font> <footer> <form> <frame> <frameset> <h1> — <h6> <head> <header> <hr> <html> <i> <iframe> <img> <input> <ins> <kbd> <label> <legend> <li> <link> <main> <map> <mark> <menu> <menuitem> <meta> <meter> <nav> <noframes> <noscript> <object> <ol> <optgroup> <option> <output> <p> <param> <picture> <pre> <progress> <q> <rp> <rt> <ruby> <s> <samp> <script> <section> <select> <small> <source> <span> <strike> <strong> <style> <sub> <summary> <sup> <svg> <table> <tbody> <td> <template> <textarea> <tfoot> <th> <thead> <time> <title> <tr> <track> <tt> <u> <ul> <var> <video> <wbr>

CSS Properties

align-contentalign-itemsalign-selfallanimationanimation-delayanimation-directionanimation-durationanimation-fill-modeanimation-iteration-countanimation-nameanimation-play-stateanimation-timing-functionbackface-visibilitybackgroundbackground-attachmentbackground-blend-modebackground-clipbackground-colorbackground-imagebackground-originbackground-positionbackground-repeatbackground-sizeborderborder-bottomborder-bottom-colorborder-bottom-left-radiusborder-bottom-right-radiusborder-bottom-styleborder-bottom-widthborder-collapseborder-colorborder-imageborder-image-outsetborder-image-repeatborder-image-sliceborder-image-sourceborder-image-widthborder-leftborder-left-colorborder-left-styleborder-left-widthborder-radiusborder-rightborder-right-colorborder-right-styleborder-right-widthborder-spacingborder-styleborder-topborder-top-colorborder-top-left-radiusborder-top-right-radiusborder-top-styleborder-top-widthborder-widthbottombox-decoration-breakbox-shadowbox-sizingbreak-afterbreak-beforebreak-insidecaption-sidecaret-color@charsetclearclipclip-pathcolorcolumn-countcolumn-fillcolumn-gapcolumn-rulecolumn-rule-colorcolumn-rule-stylecolumn-rule-widthcolumn-spancolumn-widthcolumnscontentcounter-incrementcounter-resetcursordirectiondisplayempty-cellsfilterflexflex-basisflex-directionflex-flowflex-growflex-shrinkflex-wrapfloatfont@font-facefont-familyfont-feature-settingsfont-kerningfont-sizefont-size-adjustfont-stretchfont-stylefont-variantfont-variant-capsfont-weightgridgrid-areagrid-auto-columnsgrid-auto-flowgrid-auto-rowsgrid-columngrid-column-endgrid-column-gapgrid-column-startgrid-gapgrid-rowgrid-row-endgrid-row-gapgrid-row-startgrid-templategrid-template-areasgrid-template-columnsgrid-template-rowshanging-punctuationheighthyphens@importisolationjustify-content@keyframesleftletter-spacingline-heightlist-stylelist-style-imagelist-style-positionlist-style-typemarginmargin-bottommargin-leftmargin-rightmargin-topmax-heightmax-width@mediamin-heightmin-widthmix-blend-modeobject-fitobject-positionopacityorderoutlineoutline-coloroutline-offsetoutline-styleoutline-widthoverflowoverflow-xoverflow-ypaddingpadding-bottompadding-leftpadding-rightpadding-toppage-break-afterpage-break-beforepage-break-insideperspectiveperspective-originpointer-eventspositionquotesresizerightscroll-behaviortab-sizetable-layouttext-aligntext-align-lasttext-decorationtext-decoration-colortext-decoration-linetext-decoration-styletext-indenttext-justifytext-overflowtext-shadowtext-transformtoptransformtransform-origintransform-styletransitiontransition-delaytransition-durationtransition-propertytransition-timing-functionunicode-bidiuser-selectvertical-alignvisibilitywhite-spacewidthword-breakword-spacingword-wrapwriting-modez-index

Browser compatibility

The compatibility table in this page is generated from structured data. If you’d like to contribute to the data, please check out https://github.com/mdn/browser-compat-data and send us a pull request.

Update compatibility data on GitHub

Chrome Edge Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari Android webview Chrome for Android Firefox for Android Opera for Android Safari on iOS Samsung Internet
Chrome Full support 1 Edge Full support 12 Firefox Full support 1 IE Full support Yes Opera Full support Yes Safari Full support Yes WebView Android Full support Yes Chrome Android Full support Yes Firefox Android Full support 4 Opera Android Full support Yes Safari iOS Full support Yes Samsung Internet Android Full support Yes
Deprecated Chrome Full support 1 Edge Full support 12 Firefox Full support 1 IE Full support Yes Opera Full support Yes Safari Full support Yes WebView Android Full support Yes Chrome Android Full support Yes Firefox Android Full support 4 Opera Android Full support Yes Safari iOS Full support Yes Samsung Internet Android Full support Yes
Deprecated Chrome ? Edge Full support 12 Firefox No support No Notes IE Full support Yes Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Firefox Android No support No Notes Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
Deprecated Chrome Full support 1 Edge Full support 12 Firefox Full support 1 IE Full support Yes Opera Full support Yes Safari Full support Yes WebView Android Full support Yes Chrome Android Full support Yes Firefox Android Full support 4 Opera Android Full support Yes Safari iOS Full support Yes Samsung Internet Android Full support Yes
Deprecated Chrome ? Edge ? Firefox No support No IE Full support Yes Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Firefox Android No support No Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
Deprecated Chrome ? Edge Full support 12 Firefox No support No Notes IE Full support Yes Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Firefox Android No support No Notes Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
Deprecated Chrome ? Edge Full support 12 Firefox No support No Notes IE Full support Yes Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Firefox Android No support No Notes Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
Chrome Full support 1 Edge Full support 12 Firefox Full support 1 IE Full support Yes Opera Full support Yes Safari Full support Yes WebView Android Full support Yes Chrome Android Full support Yes Firefox Android Full support 4 Opera Android Full support Yes Safari iOS Full support Yes Samsung Internet Android Full support Yes
Chrome Full support 1 Edge Full support 12 Firefox Full support 1 IE Full support Yes Opera Full support Yes Safari Full support Yes WebView Android Full support Yes Chrome Android Full support Yes Firefox Android Full support 4 Opera Android Full support Yes Safari iOS Full support Yes Samsung Internet Android Full support Yes
Chrome Full support 1 Edge Full support 12 Firefox Full support 1 IE Full support Yes Opera Full support Yes Safari Full support Yes WebView Android Full support Yes Chrome Android Full support Yes Firefox Android Full support 4 Opera Android Full support Yes Safari iOS Full support Yes Samsung Internet Android Full support Yes
Deprecated Chrome Full support 1 Edge Full support 12 Firefox Full support 1 IE Full support Yes Opera Full support Yes Safari Full support Yes WebView Android Full support Yes Chrome Android Full support Yes Firefox Android Full support 4 Opera Android Full support Yes Safari iOS Full support Yes Samsung Internet Android Full support Yes
Deprecated Chrome ? Edge Full support 12 Firefox No support No Notes IE Full support Yes Opera ? Safari ? WebView Android ? Chrome Android ? Firefox Android No support No Notes Opera Android ? Safari iOS ? Samsung Internet Android ?
Deprecated Chrome Full support 1 Edge Full support 12 Firefox Full support 1 IE Full support Yes Opera Full support Yes Safari Full support Yes WebView Android Full support Yes Chrome Android Full support Yes Firefox Android Full support 4 Opera Android Full support Yes Safari iOS Full support Yes Samsung Internet Android Full support Yes

HTML Tags

<!—><!DOCTYPE><a><abbr><acronym><address><applet><area><article><aside><audio><b><base><basefont><bdi><bdo><big><blockquote><body><br><button><canvas><caption><center><cite><code><col><colgroup><data><datalist><dd><del><details><dfn><dialog><dir><div><dl><dt><em><embed><fieldset><figcaption><figure><font><footer><form><frame><frameset><h1> — <h6><head><header><hr><html><i><iframe><img><input><ins><kbd><label><legend><li><link><main><map><mark><meta><meter><nav><noframes><noscript><object><ol><optgroup><option><output><p><param><picture><pre><progress><q><rp><rt><ruby><s><samp><script><section><select><small><source><span><strike><strong><style><sub><summary><sup><svg><table><tbody><td><template><textarea><tfoot><th><thead><time><title><tr><track><tt><u><ul><var><video>

More Examples

Example

Align text in table columns (with CSS):

<table style=»width:100%»>  <tr>    <th>ISBN</th>    <th>Title</th>    <th>Price</th>  </tr>  <tr>    <td>3476896</td>    <td>My first HTML</td>    <td style=»text-align:right»>$53</td>  </tr>  <tr>    <td>2489604</td>    <td>My first CSS</td>    <td style=»text-align:right»>$47</td>  </tr></table>

Example

Vertical-align text in table columns (with CSS):


<table style=»height:200px»>  <tr>    <th>Month</th>    <th style=»vertical-align:bottom»>Savings</th>  </tr>  <tr>    <td>January</td>    <td style=»vertical-align:bottom»>$100</td>  </tr></table>

Example

Specify width of a table column (with CSS):

<table>  <tr>    <th style=»width:200px»>Month</th>    <th>Savings</th>  </tr>  <tr>    <td>January</td>    <td>$100</td>  </tr>  <tr>    <td>February</td>    <td>$80</td>  </tr> </table>

CSS Reference

CSS ReferenceCSS Browser SupportCSS SelectorsCSS FunctionsCSS Reference AuralCSS Web Safe FontsCSS AnimatableCSS UnitsCSS PX-EM ConverterCSS ColorsCSS Color ValuesCSS Default ValuesCSS Entities

CSS Properties

align-content align-items align-self all animation animation-delay animation-direction animation-duration animation-fill-mode animation-iteration-count animation-name animation-play-state animation-timing-function

backface-visibility background background-attachment background-blend-mode background-clip background-color background-image background-origin background-position background-repeat background-size border border-bottom border-bottom-color border-bottom-left-radius border-bottom-right-radius border-bottom-style border-bottom-width border-collapse border-color border-image border-image-outset border-image-repeat border-image-slice border-image-source border-image-width border-left border-left-color border-left-style border-left-width border-radius border-right border-right-color border-right-style border-right-width border-spacing border-style border-top border-top-color border-top-left-radius border-top-right-radius border-top-style border-top-width border-width bottom box-decoration-break box-shadow box-sizing break-after break-before break-inside

caption-side caret-color @charset clear clip clip-path color column-count column-fill column-gap column-rule column-rule-color column-rule-style column-rule-width column-span column-width columns content counter-increment counter-reset cursor

direction display empty-cells filter flex flex-basis flex-direction flex-flow flex-grow flex-shrink flex-wrap float font @font-face font-family font-feature-settings font-kerning font-size font-size-adjust font-stretch font-style font-variant font-variant-caps font-weight

grid grid-area grid-auto-columns grid-auto-flow grid-auto-rows grid-column grid-column-end grid-column-gap grid-column-start grid-gap grid-row grid-row-end grid-row-gap grid-row-start grid-template grid-template-areas grid-template-columns grid-template-rows

hanging-punctuation height hyphens @import isolation justify-content @keyframes left letter-spacing

line-height list-style list-style-image list-style-position list-style-type

margin margin-bottom margin-left margin-right margin-top max-height max-width @media min-height min-width mix-blend-mode

object-fit object-position opacity order outline outline-color outline-offset outline-style outline-width overflow overflow-x overflow-y

padding padding-bottom padding-left padding-right padding-top page-break-after page-break-before page-break-inside perspective perspective-origin pointer-events position quotes

resize right

scroll-behavior

tab-size table-layout text-align text-align-last text-decoration text-decoration-color text-decoration-line text-decoration-style text-indent text-justify text-overflow text-shadow text-transform top

transform transform-origin transform-style transition transition-delay transition-duration transition-property transition-timing-function

unicode-bidi user-select

vertical-align visibility

white-space width word-break word-spacing word-wrap writing-mode

z-index

Nothing Up My Sleeve…

If you’ve had experience building layouts using HTML tables, you’ll be familiar with the use of the and attributes of the element. These attributes offer complex possibilities to a simple table, enabling cells to span columns and rows.


CSS tables lack any concept of row or column spanning, making it trickier to use one single layout structure than what might have been possible when using tables. However, similar layouts can be achieved by using nested CSS tables.

Of course, nested tables are not a perfect solution. When you want to match the dimensions of cells across nested tables, for example, things can get messy in a hurry, and the extra tags really start to add up.

As it turns out, it’s also possible to simulate row and column spanning using absolute positioning of table cells, in many cases. In this example, we’ll make the second cell of the first row of a table span both rows of the table (as if it had a of ). First, let’s take a look at the HTML code:

You’ll notice that we’ve wrapped our table in an extra with a of . This extra is needed to provide a CSS positioning context—which we create by giving it relative positioning:

According to the CSS spec, we should be able to simply apply relative positioning to the table , but current browsers don’t seem to support this.


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