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FQA:

1. Is Bootstrap a good framework (CSS framework)?

Of course, it is. Bootstrap is widely-used CSS Frameworks. If you are interested in Bootstrap, try Bootstrap 4. It can help you create websites and web applications even better and faster than Bootstrap 3.


2. Is Bootstrap better than pure CSS?

Pure CSS and Bootstrap have their pros and cons. The majority of web developers are using both. According to the answers of learing Bootstrap and use CSS, Here is a typical way that developers follow:

  • Learn CSS
  • Learn Bootstrap
  • Study Bootstrap code, you’ll learn some layout foundations, and there are actually a lot of interesting tricks
  • Write your own CSS

4. Is HTML a framework?

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser. It is not a framework.

In the End

We hope that you want to try some frameworks that we’ve shared with you today. Did we miss any framework? Feel free to let us know!

Start Design Handoff Free

Loading the Framework

If you’re using the CLI to create a project, the Sass compilation process is already set up for you. If not, you can compile our Sass files yourself, or drop in a pre-built CSS file.

To get started, first install the framework files using Bower or npm.

Compiling Manually

Next, add the framework files as an import path. How you do this depends on your build process, but the path is the same regardless:

Here’s an example using grunt-contrib-sass:

If you’re using Compass, open your project’s and add the import path there:

Finally, add an statement to the top of your primary Sass file. Refer to below to learn how to control the CSS output of the framework.

You’re also going to want a settings file for your project, which will allow you to modify the default styles of Foundation. Download the latest settings file here, add it to your project as , then import it before Foundation itself.

The settings file needs to import from Foundation. Please ensure that the Foundation folder is included in Sass or change for it to points to the full path of the file. For example, NPM users may need to change the import to .

Using Compiled CSS

The Foundation for Sites npm and Bower packages include pre-compiled CSS files, in minified (compressed) and unminified flavors. If you’re interested in editing the framework CSS directly, use the unminified file. For production, use the minified version.

Compatibility

Foundation for Sites can be compiled with Ruby Sass and libsass. We tend to stick to the latest versions of both compilers when possible. Our documentation and starter project are compiled with node-sass, a Node port of libsass. We recommend these versions of either compiler:

  • Ruby Sass 3.4+
  • node-sass 3.4.2+ (libsass 3.3.2)

Autoprefixer Required

We don’t include vendor prefixes in our Sass files—instead, we let Autoprefixer handle it for us. Our build process uses gulp-autoprefixer, but there are that work with Grunt, Rails, Brunch, and more.

To get the proper browser support, use these Autoprefixer settings:

contents

CDN

Component:group zf-cdn Snippet code
CDN css flex, rtl zf-cdn-css
CDN CSS Motion UI zf-cdn-motion-ui-css
CDN JS zf-cdn-js
CDN JS Motion UI zf-cdn-motion-ui-js
CDN JS Wow zf-cdn-wow-js
CDN LIB zf-cdn-lib
CDN ICONS zf-cdn-icons
CDN JQUERY zf-cdn-jquery
zf-cdn-datepiker.js
zf-cdn-datepiker.css
CDN LIB-UTIL zf-cdn-lib-util
zf-cdn-jssor-slider
CDN Initialize zf-cdn-initialize

LAYOUT

Component:group zf-lt Snippet code
Row zf-ltro
Row Flex zf-ltrof
Row Source Ordering zf-ltso
Row Collapse/Uncollapse zf-ltcu
Row Block Grids zf-ltbg
QUICK ADDITIONAL:
— Grid XY options x gx
— Grid XY options y gy
— Flexbox options fx
— small columns sc
— medium columns mc
— large columns lc

CONTROLS

Component:group zf-cr Snippet code
Button (All options) zf-crbt
Button (All options dropdown) zf-crbtd
Button Accessibility (actions) zf-crbtc
Button Anchors (links) zf-crbta
Button group (All options) zf-crbtg
Button close zf-crcbt

LIBRARIES

Component:group zf-lb Snippet code
Motion UI zf-lbmu
Libraries Utility triggers
Data-animation In & Out mo-data-animation
Motion UI In & Out mo-in-out
Motion UI In mo-in
Motion UI Out mo-out
Panini Utility
Helpers {#h
Front Matter Block —: —::
{{# }} {#
{{> }} {>

NAVIGATION

Component:group zf-nv Snippet code
Basic Menus zf-nvbm
Icons Menus zf-nvim
Dropdown Menus zf-nvdm
Drilldown Menus zf-nvdl
— Sub Drop&drilldown Menus sub-dropdown-drilldown
Top Bar zf-nvtb
— Sub Top Bar sub-top-bar
Responsive Menus zf-nvrm
— Sub Responsive Menus sub-responsive
Responsive Toggle Menus zf-nvrt
Breadcrumbs zf-nvbr
Pagination zf-nvpg

CONTAINERS

Component:group zf-ct Snippet code
Accordion zf-ctac
— Adding accordion ADDaccordion
Accordion Responsive zf-ctar
Callout zf-ctcl
Callout Closable zf-ctcc
Dropdown zf-ctdp
Card zf-ctcd
Media Object zf-ctmo
— Sup Media Object Section sup-media-object-section
Off-canvas zf-ctof
Reveal Modal zf-ctmd
Tables zf-cttb
Tabs Panel zf-cttp
Tabs Vertical Panel zf-cttv
— Sup Panel Tabs sup-panel-tabs

MEDIA

Component:group zf-md Snippet code
Badge zf-mdba
Flex Video zf-mdfv
Label zf-mdla
Orbit Slider Motion UI zf-mdos
Tooltips zf-mdtp

PLUGIN

Component:group zf-pl Snippet code
Abide zf-plab
Equalizer Basics zf-pleq
Equalizer Responsive zf-pleqr
Interchange Img zf-plit-img
Interchange Div zf-plit-div
Interchange Html zf-plit-html
Toggler Animate zf-pltga
Toggler Closable Animate zf-pltgc
Sticky zf-plst
Adding Abide ADDabide
Number abide abd-number
Text abide abd-text
Password-match abide abd-password-match
Url abide abd-url
Email abide abd-email
Select abide abd-select
Radio abide abd-radio
Checkbox abide abd-checkbox
Custom Pattern abd-custom
Button abide (Submit or Reset) abd-button

UTILITY

Utility Trigger
Image Placeholder LOREMPIXEL imgpl
Gallery Placeholder LOREMPIXEL imgpg
Image Placeholder PLACEHOLD.IT imgpi
Image Placeholder PLACEKITTEN imgpk
Icon font (283 Foundation icons in i tag ) icon-font
fi-icon-name (283 Foundation icons ) fi-
data-icon (283 Foundation icons data ) data-icon
— CSS snippet for data-icon css-data-icon

TEMPLATE

Inception in (live template) Trigger
add small column ADDsmall-column-item
add large column ADDlarge-column-item
add medium column ADDmedium-column-item
add small medium large column ADDsmall-medium-large-column-item

Responsive Toggle with animation

To use animations from the Motion UI library, include the attribute.

Scale your browser down to see the toggle happen.

Menu

  • Site Title

Preventing FOUC

Before the JavaScript on your page loads, you’ll be able to see both the mobile and desktop element at once for a brief second. This is known as a flash of unstyled content. There’s not an easy way for the framework to handle this for you, but you can add some extra CSS to account for it.


If we reference the above example, is our mobile element and is our desktop element. So before the JavaScript loads, we want only the right element for that screen size to be visible.

If you’re using Sass, you can write it like this:

Что такое и кому подходит программа подготовки Foundation?

Учебный курс нацелен на выпускников средних школ всего мира, которые планируют поступление в вузы Великобритании, США и других стран, но не подходят под требования к абитуриентам, либо хотят повысить шансы на зачисление.  Курс помогает восполнить разницу между системами образования и достигнуть требуемой квалификации. Например, в вузы Италии принимают только после 12 лет обучения. Выпускникам российских школ необходимо восполнить недостающий год, тогда на выручку приходит программа Foundation Year. Университеты Англии открыты только тем абитуриентам, которые прошли курс предуниверситетской подготовки. Частные школы идут навстречу иностранным ученикам и предлагают несколько вариантов: британскую программу A-Level (2 года), международный курс International Baccalaureate (2 года) и International Foundation. Преимущество последнего в том, что он рассчитан на 9 месяцев обучения, а не 2 года. Однако стоит помнить, что для поступления в Оксфорд или Кембридж, программы Foundation будет недостаточно, приемная комиссия этих топовых вузов рассматривает заявления только от абитуриентов, окончивших A-Level.

Преимущества образования по программе Foundation

1. Увеличение шансов на поступление в вуз

Учебный курс пополнит багаж знаний и даст необходимую для зачисления в вуз квалификацию. Кроме того, вы познакомитесь с системой образования страны, что поможет лучше подготовиться к поступлению.

2. Повышение уровня английского

Все программы Foundation в Англии и США, ориентированные на иностранных студентов, обязательно включают курсы английского. Вы научитесь правильно излагать мысли устно и письменно, готовить эссе и выступать с речами, изучите специальные предметные термины и выражения. Кроме того, улучшите разговорный английский, общаясь с друзьями, преподавателями и одногруппниками.

3. Консультации специалистов по высшему образованию

Частные школы уделяют пристальное внимание предуниверситетской подготовке учеников, что выражается в сильных академических программах, квалифицированных преподавателях и работе консультантов по высшему образованию. Они помогут подобрать правильный вуз и курс обучения, оформить заявление на зачисление и написать мотивационное письмо

Более того, консультанты проведут пробные собеседования и укажут на слабые места, которые стоит проработать. Программа Foundation открывает студентам доступ к встречам с представителями ведущих университетов, которые рассказывают об особенностях обучения и требованиях к абитуриентам. Эти знания помогут стать идеальным кандидатом на получение места в желаемом вузе.

4. Снижение культурного шока

Изучение программы Foundation, чаще всего, проходит в стране, где находится целевой вуз. У вас будет целый год на то, чтобы пережить культурный шок и адаптироваться к особенностям нового места. Вы начнете учебу в вузе со знанием дела, и не будете испытывать лишнего стресса.

Лучшие программы Foundation доступны в ведущих частных школах Великобритании и США:

  • CATS College
  • Abbey DLD College
  • Fairmont Private School
  • Bellerbys College
  • Queen Ethelburga’s College

Stick to bottom

You can also stick to bottom. Using . Here is an example using two anchors (like above) with a stick to bottom.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

The image to the right will be sticky when it hits the top of this paragraph element. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

The image to the right will lose stickiness when it hits the top of this paragraph element. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

JavaScript Reference

Motion UI includes a tiny JavaScript utility that will work anywhere as long as jQuery is loaded. However, Foundation 6 includes a customized version of this code that is included in . If you are using the Foundation version of this utility, and you wish to animate your own elements, trigger it this way:

The callback is optional in this case, and will fire when the animation is complete.

Please note that the duration/animation speed for Motion UI animations are controlled via Sass mixin variables. The JavaScript handles the addition and removal of classes and event listener/callback firing only. If you are individually including your tags, make sure you are including the path.

Преимущества прохождения Foundation Programme

  • В случае окончания абитуриентом 11-летней школы, Foundation Programme восполняет необходимый год обучения. Нужно учитывать и тот факт, что большинство университетов мира принимают на первый курс с 18 лет.
  • К Foundation Programme прибегают также те молодые люди, которым необходимо выучить английский. Эта программа ориентирована на языковую подготовку: студенты «подтягивают» свой английский до уровня, необходимого для учебы в университете.
  • В некоторых вузах окончание Foundation Programme означает автоматическое зачисление в университет (при условии хорошей успеваемости). В других учебных заведениях сертификат о прослушанном подготовительном курсе значительно повышает шансы на поступление. 80-100% окончивших подготовительную программу поступают в выбранный вуз.
  • После окончания Foundation Programme многие университеты освобождают иностранных абитуриентов от сдачи IELTS или TOEFL.
  • Foundation развивает интеллектуальные способности студента, готовит его к выбранной специальности и дает необходимые базовые знания.
  • Подготовительная программа помогает студенту адаптироваться к быту и учебной среде той страны, где он хочет получить высшее образование. Благодаря этой программе учащиеся повышают коммуникативные навыки и находят новых друзей.
  • Студенты Foundation Programme — полноправные члены университетов, они имеют доступ к библиотекам и другой инфраструктуре учебного заведения.

Tabs and URLs

Browser history

When the option is set to , the current state of the tabset is recorded by adding a hash with the tab panel ID to the browser URL when a tab opens. By default, tabs replace the browser history (using ). Modify this behavior by using attribute to append to the browser history (using ). In the latter case the browser back button will track each click that opens a tab panel.

By using deep linking (see below), the open state of a page’s tabset may be shared by copy-pasting the browser URL.

Deep linking

Add the attribute to a tabstrip to:

  • modify the browser history when a tab is clicked
  • allow users to open a particular tab at page load with a hash-appended URL

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.

Vivamus hendrerit arcu sed erat molestie vehicula. Sed auctor neque eu tellus rhoncus ut eleifend nibh porttitor. Ut in nulla enim. Phasellus molestie magna non est bibendum non venenatis nisl tempor. Suspendisse dictum feugiat nisl ut dapibus.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua.

For example, will open the third tab panel at page load. This example will open a new browser tab and scroll you to the open tab.


When linking directly to a tab panel, it might not be obvious that the content appears within a tab panel. An additional attribute rolls the page up slightly after deep linking (to a horizontal tabset) so that the tabstrip is at the top of the viewport.

The Settings File

All Foundation projects include a settings file, named . If you’re using the CLI to create a Foundation for Sites project, you can find the settings file under scss/ (basic template) or src/assets/scss/ (ZURB template). If you’re installing the framework standalone using Bower or npm, there’s a settings file included in those packages, which you can move into your own Sass files to work with.

Every component includes a set of variables that modify core structural or visual styles. If there’s something you can’t customize with a variable, you can just write your own CSS to add it.

Once you’ve set up a new project, your settings file can’t be automatically updated when new versions change, add, or remove variables. Keep tabs on new Foundation releases so you know when things change.

Here’s an example set of settings variables. These change the default styling of buttons:

Nested Modal

It’s possible for modals to open other modals. Create a second modal with a unique ID, and then add a click trigger with inside the first modal.

Click me for a modal

I have another modal inside of me!

Click me for another modal! ×

Full-screen

A full-screen modal is 100% of the width and height of the window. Add the class to make it go.

Click me for a full-screen modal

OH I’M SO FUUUUL

×

Advanced Options

To remove the overlay, add the attribute to the modal.

Click me for an overlay-lacking modal

I feel so free!

Animations

To use animations from the Motion UI library, include the and attributes. If you want to adjust the speed or timing, include it the attributes like .

Click me for a modal

Whoa, I’m dizzy!

There are many options for animating modals, check out the Motion UI library to see them all

AJAX

To use AJAX to load your modal content, use the code snippet below.

Accessibility

Modals by default are accessible through the use of various ARIA attributes. To make a modal even more accessible, designate a label to the modal by adding to the container and to the element you want to designate as the label.

Click me for a modal

Changing the Breakpoints

If you’re using the Sass version of Foundation, the default breakpoints can be changed. The names of the breakpoints, and their widths, are stored in a variable in the settings file.

Even though the above values are in pixels, they’re converted to ems at the end for use in media queries.


Changing the widths of any of the breakpoints is as easy as changing the pixel values in this map. Note that here there are two extra breakpoints: and . We don’t use these for any components, and also don’t output any CSS classes that use them by default.

You can change that by modifying the variable in your settings file. This is a list of breakpoint names. Adding or removing names from the list will change the CSS class output. It looks like this by default:

For example, to get classes in your CSS, for use in the grid, Menu, and more, just add it to the end of the list:

Basics

There are two pieces to a tabbed interface: the tabs themselves, and the content for each tab. The tabs are an element with the class , and each item has the class . Each tab contains a link to a tab. The of each link should match the ID of a tab. Alternatively, the ID can be specified with the attribute .

The tab content container has the class , while each section has the class . Each content pane also has a unique ID, which is targeted by a link in the tabstrip.

Put it all together, and we get this:

one

Check me out! I’m a super cool Tab panel with text content!

two

I do nothing!

three

Check me out! I’m a super cool Tab panel with text content!

four

five

Check me out! I’m a super cool Tab panel with text content!

six

Text Alignment

You can change the text alignment of an element by adding , , or to an element.

Adding a breakpoint to the front of a text alignment class will cause it to only be applied on that size screen or larger. For example, will keep text left-aligned on the smallest screens, but switch to center-aligned on medium screens and larger.

This text is left-aligned. Set in the year 0 F.E. («Foundation Era»), The Psychohistorians opens on Trantor, the capital of the 12,000-year-old Galactic Empire. Though the empire appears stable and powerful, it is slowly decaying in ways that parallel the decline of the Western Roman Empire.

This text is right-aligned. Set in the year 0 F.E. («Foundation Era»), The Psychohistorians opens on Trantor, the capital of the 12,000-year-old Galactic Empire. Though the empire appears stable and powerful, it is slowly decaying in ways that parallel the decline of the Western Roman Empire.

This text is center-aligned. Set in the year 0 F.E. («Foundation Era»), The Psychohistorians opens on Trantor, the capital of the 12,000-year-old Galactic Empire. Though the empire appears stable and powerful, it is slowly decaying in ways that parallel the decline of the Western Roman Empire.

This text is justified. Set in the year 0 F.E. («Foundation Era»), The Psychohistorians opens on Trantor, the capital of the 12,000-year-old Galactic Empire. Though the empire appears stable and powerful, it is slowly decaying in ways that parallel the decline of the Western Roman Empire.


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