Node.js v14.8.0 documentation

Config files

nodemon supports local and global configuration files. These are usually named and can be located in the current working directory or in your home directory. An alternative local configuration file can be specified with the option.


The specificity is as follows, so that a command line argument will always override the config file settings:

  • command line arguments
  • local config
  • global config

A config file can take any of the command line arguments as JSON key values, for example:

{"verbose"true,"ignore""*.test.js","fixtures/*","execMap"{"rb""ruby","pde""processing --sketch={{pwd}} --run"}}

The above file might be my global config so that I have support for ruby files and processing files, and I can run and nodemon will automatically know how to run the script even though out of the box support for processing scripts.

If you want to keep all your package configurations in one place, nodemon supports using for configuration. Specify the config in the same format as you would for a config file but under in the file, for example, take the following :

{"name""nodemon","homepage""http://nodemon.io","...""... other standard package.json values","nodemonConfig"{"ignore""test/*","docs/*","delay""2500"}}

Note that if you specify a file or provide a local any config is ignored.

.

Gracefully reloading down your script

It is possible to have nodemon send any signal that you specify to your application.

nodemon --signal SIGHUP server.js

Your application can handle the signal as follows.

process.once("SIGHUP",function(){reloadSomeConfiguration();})

Please note that nodemon will send this signal to every process in the process tree.

If you are using , then each workers (as well as the master) will receive the signal. If you wish to terminate all workers on receiving a , a common pattern is to catch the in the master, and forward to all workers, while ensuring that all workers ignore .

if(cluster.isMaster){process.on("SIGHUP",function(){for(constworkerofObject.values(cluster.workers)){worker.process.kill("SIGTERM");}});}else{process.on("SIGHUP",function(){})}

Running non-node scripts

nodemon can also be used to execute and monitor other programs. nodemon will read the file extension of the script being run and monitor that extension instead of if there’s no :

nodemon --exec "python -v" ./app.py

Now nodemon will run with python in verbose mode (note that if you’re not passing args to the exec program, you don’t need the quotes), and look for new or modified files with the extension.

Using the config file, you can define your own default executables using the property. This is particularly useful if you’re working with a language that isn’t supported by default by nodemon.

To add support for nodemon to know about the extension (for Perl), the file would add:

{"execMap"{"pl""perl"}}

Now running the following, nodemon will know to use as the executable:

nodemon script.pl

Pre-processed summary data

A set of pre-processed summary data is also made available in the ./summaries/ sub-directory. Each type of summary consists of:

  • A directory containing CSV files with names matching the raw log file names and rows containing aggregated per-day data for the given summary datatype. Most of these files contain two rows, for two days, as the raw log files don’t span neatly across day boundaries.
  • An aggregation file, in CSV format, where each row is a single day during the full period for which there is available data.
  • A PNG file with a simple plot of the data.

Total

Contains two data columns: downloads and TiB, where TiB is 240 bytes.

Source data: ./summaries/total/

Aggregate data: ./summaries/total.csv

Plot:

Architectures

Contains a data column per distributed architecture, including unknown where the architecture cannot be determined (source or header tarballs). The columns are ordered by totals where the architecture that has the highest total is listed first and so on, the column ordering may therefore change over time. The list is not fixed and may expand when additional architectures are distributed from nodejs.org. The .pkg OS X installers are counted as x64 even though, prior to Node.js v4, they were «universal binaries» containing both x64 and x86 versions, usable on both architectures.

Source data: ./summaries/arch/

Aggregate data: ./summaries/arch.csv

Plot:

Countries

Contains a data column per country from the geolocation data, including unknown where a country could not be determined. The column names take the form of ISO 3166 country codes. The columns are ordered by totals where the country with the highest total is listed first and so on, the column ordering may therefore change over time. The list is not fixed and may expand if additional countries not already listed are discovered via geolocation.

Source data: ./summaries/country/

Aggregate data: ./summaries/country.csv

Plot:

Operating Systems

Contains a data column per distributed operating system, including unknown where the operating system cannot be determined (due to ), src for source tarballs and headers for header tarballs. The columns are ordered by totals where the operating system that has the highest total is listed first and so on, the column ordering may therefore change over time. The list is not fixed and may expand when additional operating systems are distributed from nodejs.org.

Source data: ./summaries/os/

Aggregate data: ./summaries/os.csv

Plot:

Versions

Contains a data column per significant version number of Node.js. For <= 0.12, the semver-minor version number is listed, for >= 4.x the semver-major version number is listed. The unknown column contains counts of downloads where the version number could not be determined (see above note about and the directory symlinks coupled with ). The columns are ordered by totals where the version that has the highest total is listed first and so on, the column ordering may therefore change over time. The list is not fixed and will expand when additional significant Node.js versions are made available for download.

Source data: ./summaries/version/

Aggregate data: ./summaries/version.csv

Plot:

What format is the data in?

Raw log files are available in the ./logs/ sub-directory where each file’s name takes the form: , where the last entry in the file is used to create the string from the year, month and day of the month respectively and as the unix epoch timestamp. There may zero, one or two log files for a given day. However, when stitched together they should form a continuous record of the downloads from nodejs.org.

There is always a nodejs.org-access.log.csv file which represents the current day’s data and is not final, i.e. it will change from update to update, either appending new data or starting again for a new day. The other log files can be considered final until we decide to adjust the format at some point in the future.

The raw log files are comma-separated value format with the following columns: day, country, region, path, version, os, arch, bytes.

Country and region are calculated by using MaxMind’s GeoLite2 City database and some entries may contain blank values where the look-up fails. headers are used to determine the most likely origin IP address by parsing out the leftmost non-private address.


The path field contains the actual path that was requested by the client, with the version, os and arch columns calculated from this value.

The version field is occasionaly empty due to the availability of which is a symlink to the latest source tarball and the various directory symlinks when used to download (versions could be roughly calculated for all of these when matched with release dates if desired).

The os field contains operating system identifiers as well as for source tarballs and for header tarballs.

The arch field is blank when os is or .

Структура и архитектура приложений на Node.js

  • Архитектурный подход к программированию
  • Модули, слои, структура проекта, песочницы в JavaScript и Node.js
    • Пример проекта: https://github.com/HowProgrammingWorks/Project
    • Абстрактные слои: https://github.com/HowProgrammingWorks/AbstractionLayers
    • Песочницы: https://github.com/HowProgrammingWorks/Sandboxes
  • Инверсия управления и внедрение зависимостей в Node.js
    • Инверсия управления: https://github.com/HowProgrammingWorks/InversionOfControl
    • Внедрение зависимостей: https://github.com/HowProgrammingWorks/DependencyInjection
  • Межпроцессовое взаимодействие в Node.js
  • Слои, связанность и связность кода

Config files

nodemon supports local and global configuration files. These are usually named and can be located in the current working directory or in your home directory. An alternative local configuration file can be specified with the option.

The specificity is as follows, so that a command line argument will always override the config file settings:

  • command line arguments
  • local config
  • global config

A config file can take any of the command line arguments as JSON key values, for example:

{"verbose"true,"ignore""*.test.js","fixtures/*","execMap"{"rb""ruby","pde""processing --sketch={{pwd}} --run"}}

The above file might be my global config so that I have support for ruby files and processing files, and I can run and nodemon will automatically know how to run the script even though out of the box support for processing scripts.

If you want to keep all your package configurations in one place, nodemon supports using for configuration. Specify the config in the same format as you would for a config file but under in the file, for example, take the following :

{"name""nodemon","homepage""http://nodemon.io","...""... other standard package.json values","nodemonConfig"{"ignore""test/*","docs/*","delay""2500"}}

Note that if you specify a file or provide a local any config is ignored.

.

Config files

nodemon supports local and global configuration files. These are usually named and can be located in the current working directory or in your home directory. An alternative local configuration file can be specified with the option.

The specificity is as follows, so that a command line argument will always override the config file settings:

  • command line arguments
  • local config
  • global config

A config file can take any of the command line arguments as JSON key values, for example:

{"verbose"true,"ignore""*.test.js","fixtures/*","execMap"{"rb""ruby","pde""processing --sketch={{pwd}} --run"}}

The above file might be my global config so that I have support for ruby files and processing files, and I can run and nodemon will automatically know how to run the script even though out of the box support for processing scripts.

If you want to keep all your package configurations in one place, nodemon supports using for configuration. Specify the config in the same format as you would for a config file but under in the file, for example, take the following :

{"name""nodemon","homepage""http://nodemon.io","...""... other standard package.json values","nodemonConfig"{"ignore""test/*","docs/*","delay""2500"}}

Note that if you specify a file or provide a local any config is ignored.

.

Running non-node scripts

nodemon can also be used to execute and monitor other programs. nodemon will read the file extension of the script being run and monitor that extension instead of if there’s no :

nodemon --exec "python -v" ./app.py

Now nodemon will run with python in verbose mode (note that if you’re not passing args to the exec program, you don’t need the quotes), and look for new or modified files with the extension.

Using the config file, you can define your own default executables using the property. This is particularly useful if you’re working with a language that isn’t supported by default by nodemon.

To add support for nodemon to know about the extension (for Perl), the file would add:

{"execMap"{"pl""perl"}}

Now running the following, nodemon will know to use as the executable:

nodemon script.pl

package.json¶

В npm файл используется для описания модулей, от которых зависимо ваше приложение, и содержит ряд метаданных о приложении. Рассмотрим на примере. Предположим, у вас есть проект, корневая директория которого называется . Перейдите в через командную строку и введите команду.

Вам будет предложено ввести некоторые данные, на основе которых Node.js npm сгенерирует файл . Структура файла:

  • — название приложения;
  • — версия;
  • — описание;
  • — главный файл приложения, который отвечает за его запуск (хорошей практикой считается давать название или );
  • — объект, описывающий команды, которые часто приходится выполнять в процессе разработки и упрощающий их использование;
  • — ссылка на Git репозиторий, где хранится проект;
  • — массив ключевых слов, по которым будет осуществляться поиск модуля на сайте npm (если он будет там опубликован);
  • — разработчик;
  • — лицензия, под которой будет распространяться приложение.

Пример, как может выглядеть .

package.json

Если вы не планируете публиковать свое приложение в общем репозитории npm, то заполнять все поля совсем не обязательно. Вполне будет достаточно для собственного удобства указать , и .

Delaying restarting

In some situations, you may want to wait until a number of files have changed. The timeout before checking for new file changes is 1 second. If you’re uploading a number of files and it’s taking some number of seconds, this could cause your app to restart multiple times unnecessarily.

To add an extra throttle, or delay restarting, use the command:

nodemon --delay 10 server.js

For more precision, milliseconds can be specified. Either as a float:

nodemon --delay 2.5 server.js

Or using the time specifier (ms):

nodemon --delay 2500ms server.js

The delay figure is number of seconds (or milliseconds, if specified) to delay before restarting. So nodemon will only restart your app the given number of seconds after the last file change.

If you are setting this value in , the value will always be interpreted in milliseconds. E.g., the following are equivalent:

nodemon --delay 2.5{"delay""2500"}

Running non-node scripts

nodemon can also be used to execute and monitor other programs. nodemon will read the file extension of the script being run and monitor that extension instead of .js if there’s no .nodemonignore:

Now nodemon will run with python in verbose mode (note that if you’re not passing args to the exec program, you don’t need the quotes), and look for new or modified files with the extension.

Using the config file, you can define your own default executables using the property. This is particularly useful if you’re working with a language that isn’t supported by default by nodemon.

To add support for nodemon to know about the .pl extension (for Perl), the nodemon.json file would add:

Now running the following, nodemon will know to use as the executable:

Config files

nodemon supports local and global configuration files. These are named and can be located in the current working directory or in your home directory.

The specificity is as follows, so that a command line argument will always override the config file settings:

  • command line arguments
  • local config
  • global config

A config file can take any of the command line arguments as JSON key values, for example:

The above file might be my global config so that I have support for ruby files and processing files, and I can simply run and nodemon will automatically know how to run the script even though out of the box support for processing scripts.

.

JavaScript и Вы¶

До того как мы поговорим о технических вещах, позвольте занять некоторое время и поговорить о вас и ваших отношениях с JavaScript. Эта глава позволит вам понять, имеет ли смысл читать дальше.

Скорее всего, как и в моем случае, вы начали свой путь в веб-разработке с написания простых статических HTML-документов. Вместе с этим, вы познакомились с веселой штукой, называемой JavaScript, но использовали его исключительно в простых случаях, добавляя интерактивности на ваши веб-странички.

Что вы хотели узнать — так это действительно полезные вещи; вы хотели знать, как создать сложный сайт. Для этого вы изучали PHP, Ruby, Java и начинали писать backend-код.

Тем не менее, вы постоянно следили за JavaScript, вы видели, что с появлениям JQuery, Prototype и других фреймворков этот язык стал больше, чем просто .

Однако, это всё ещё относилось к frontend-разработке. Конечно, jQuery — очень мощный инструмент, но всякий раз, когда вы приправляли ваш сайт разными jQuery-«фишками», в лучшем случае, вы были JavaScript-пользователем нежели JavaScript-разработчиком.

А потом пришел Node.js. JavaScript на сервере: насколько это хорошо?

И вы решили, что пора проверить старый новый JavaScript. Подождите. Написать Node.js приложение — одно дело, а понять, почему оно должно быть написано таким образом, для этого нужно понимать JavaScript. И на этот раз — по-настоящему.

В этом — как раз и проблема. JavaScript живёт двумя, может даже тремя разными жизнями: весёлый маленький DHMTL-помощник из середины 90-х годов, более серьезный frontend-инструмент в лице jQuery и наконец серверный (server-side, backend) JavaScript. По этой причине не так просто найти информацию, которая поможет вам познать правильный JavaScript, пригодный для написания Node.js приложения в манере, дающий ощущение, что вы не просто использовали JavaScript, а действительно разрабатывали на JavaScript.

Это — наиболее правильный подход. Вы — уже опытный разработчик, вы не хотите изучать новые технологии поверхностно, просто валяя дурака. Вы хотите быть уверенным, что вы подходите к проблеме под правильным углом.

Конечно, существует отличная документация по Node.js, но её зачастую недостаточно. Нужно руководство.

Моя цель заключается в обеспечении вас руководством.

Delaying restarting

In some situations, you may want to wait until a number of files have changed. The timeout before checking for new file changes is 1 second. If you’re uploading a number of files and it’s taking some number of seconds, this could cause your app to restart multiple times unnecessarily.

To add an extra throttle, or delay restarting, use the command:

For more precision, milliseconds can be specified. Either as a float:

Or using the time specifier (ms):

The delay figure is number of seconds (or milliseconds, if specified) to delay before restarting. So nodemon will only restart your app the given number of seconds after the last file change.

Running non-node scripts

nodemon can also be used to execute and monitor other programs. nodemon will read the file extension of the script being run and monitor that extension instead of if there’s no :

nodemon --exec "python -v" ./app.py

Now nodemon will run with python in verbose mode (note that if you’re not passing args to the exec program, you don’t need the quotes), and look for new or modified files with the extension.

Using the config file, you can define your own default executables using the property. This is particularly useful if you’re working with a language that isn’t supported by default by nodemon.

To add support for nodemon to know about the extension (for Perl), the file would add:

{"execMap"{"pl""perl"}}

Now running the following, nodemon will know to use as the executable:

nodemon script.pl

Delaying restarting

In some situations, you may want to wait until a number of files have changed. The timeout before checking for new file changes is 1 second. If you’re uploading a number of files and it’s taking some number of seconds, this could cause your app to restart multiple times unnecessarily.

To add an extra throttle, or delay restarting, use the command:

nodemon --delay 10 server.js

For more precision, milliseconds can be specified. Either as a float:

nodemon --delay 2.5 server.js

Or using the time specifier (ms):

nodemon --delay 2500ms server.js

The delay figure is number of seconds (or milliseconds, if specified) to delay before restarting. So nodemon will only restart your app the given number of seconds after the last file change.

If you are setting this value in , the value will always be interpreted in milliseconds. E.g., the following are equivalent:

nodemon --delay 2.5{"delay""2500"}

Delaying restarting

In some situations, you may want to wait until a number of files have changed. The timeout before checking for new file changes is 1 second. If you’re uploading a number of files and it’s taking some number of seconds, this could cause your app to restart multiple times unnecessarily.

To add an extra throttle, or delay restarting, use the command:

For more precision, milliseconds can be specified. Either as a float:

Or using the time specifier (ms):

The delay figure is number of seconds (or milliseconds, if specified) to delay before restarting. So nodemon will only restart your app the given number of seconds after the last file change.

If you are setting this value in , the value will always be interpretted in milliseconds. E.g., the following are equivalent:

Config files

nodemon supports local and global configuration files. These are usually named and can be located in the current working directory or in your home directory. An alternative local configuration file can be specified with the option.

The specificity is as follows, so that a command line argument will always override the config file settings:

  • command line arguments
  • local config
  • global config

A config file can take any of the command line arguments as JSON key values, for example:

The above file might be my global config so that I have support for ruby files and processing files, and I can simply run and nodemon will automatically know how to run the script even though out of the box support for processing scripts.

If you want to keep all your package configurations in one place, nodemon supports using for configuration. Simply specify the config in the same format as you would for a config file but under in the file, for example, take the following :


Note that if you specify a file or provide a local any config is ignored.

.

Участники и сотрудники

Задачей CommComm является дальнейшая поддержка и расширение сообщества Node.js. Если вы читаете это, значит вы уже с нами ― и от имени сообщества Node.js мы хотим попросить вас помочь проекту!

Лучше всего начать с nodejs/community-committee GitHub репозитория. Попробуйте найти задачи помеченные, как «Good first issue», чтобы понять где мы нуждаемся в помощи. Если у вас есть собственные идеи о том, как мы можем улучшить сообщество, не стесняйтесь открывать свои собственные задачи, создавать pull requests с улучшениями, или помогать нам, делясь своими мыслями и идеями в текущих дискуссиях, которые уже есть на GitHub.

Далее, вы можете участвовать в наших начинаниях, связанных с построением общества, таких как: локализация, евангелизация, Node.js Collection и другие — копаясь в репозиториях и улучшая их!

Но перед тем как начать, пожалуйста ознакомьтесь с рекомендациями.

Если Вы заинтересованы в участии в CommComm, как член комитета, вам следует прочитать раздел ниже — о Наблюдателях и Членстве, и создать issue с ​​просьбой быть наблюдателем, для следующего заседания CommComm. Ознакомиться с примером такого вопроса можно здесь.

Server-side JavaScript¶

Первая инкарнация JavaScript жила в теле браузера. Но это всего лишь контекст. Он определяет, что вы можете делать с языком, но не говорит о том, что язык сам по себе может сделать. JavaScript это «полноценный» язык: вы можете использовать его в различных контекстах и достичь всего того, что можете достичь с другими «полноценными» языками.

Node.js — действительно, просто другой контекст: он позволяет вам запускать JavaScript-код вне браузера.

Чтобы ваш JavaScript код выполнился на вычислительной машине вне браузера (на backend), он должен быть интерпретирован и, конечно же, выполнен. Именно это и делает Node.js. Для этого он использует движок V8 VM от Google — ту же самую среду исполнения для JavaScript, которую использует браузер Google Chrome.

Кроме того, Node.js поставляется со множеством полезных модулей, так что вам не придется писать всё с нуля, как, например, вывод строки в консоль.

Таким образом, Node.js состоит из 2 вещей: среды исполнения и полезных библиотек.

Для того чтобы их использовать, вам необходимо установить Node.js. Вместо повторения всего процесса установки здесь, я просто приглашу вас посетить официальную инструкцию по инсталляции. Пожалуйста, вернитесь обратно после успешной установки.

Delaying restarting

In some situations, you may want to wait until a number of files have changed. The timeout before checking for new file changes is 1 second. If you’re uploading a number of files and it’s taking some number of seconds, this could cause your app to restart multiple times unnecessarily.

To add an extra throttle, or delay restarting, use the command:

nodemon --delay 10 server.js

For more precision, milliseconds can be specified. Either as a float:

nodemon --delay 2.5 server.js

Or using the time specifier (ms):

nodemon --delay 2500ms server.js

The delay figure is number of seconds (or milliseconds, if specified) to delay before restarting. So nodemon will only restart your app the given number of seconds after the last file change.

If you are setting this value in , the value will always be interpreted in milliseconds. E.g., the following are equivalent:

nodemon --delay 2.5{"delay""2500"}

Config files

nodemon supports local and global configuration files. These are usually named and can be located in the current working directory or in your home directory. An alternative local configuration file can be specified with the option.

The specificity is as follows, so that a command line argument will always override the config file settings:

  • command line arguments
  • local config
  • global config

A config file can take any of the command line arguments as JSON key values, for example:

{"verbose"true,"ignore""*.test.js","fixtures/*","execMap"{"rb""ruby","pde""processing --sketch={{pwd}} --run"}}

The above file might be my global config so that I have support for ruby files and processing files, and I can run and nodemon will automatically know how to run the script even though out of the box support for processing scripts.

If you want to keep all your package configurations in one place, nodemon supports using for configuration. Specify the config in the same format as you would for a config file but under in the file, for example, take the following :

{"name""nodemon","homepage""http://nodemon.io","...""... other standard package.json values","nodemonConfig"{"ignore""test/*","docs/*","delay""2500"}}

Note that if you specify a file or provide a local any config is ignored.

.

Running non-node scripts

nodemon can also be used to execute and monitor other programs. nodemon will read the file extension of the script being run and monitor that extension instead of if there’s no :

nodemon --exec "python -v" ./app.py

Now nodemon will run with python in verbose mode (note that if you’re not passing args to the exec program, you don’t need the quotes), and look for new or modified files with the extension.

Using the config file, you can define your own default executables using the property. This is particularly useful if you’re working with a language that isn’t supported by default by nodemon.

To add support for nodemon to know about the extension (for Perl), the file would add:

{"execMap"{"pl""perl"}}

Now running the following, nodemon will know to use as the executable:

nodemon script.pl

Gracefully reloading down your script

It is possible to have nodemon send any signal that you specify to your application.

nodemon --signal SIGHUP server.js

Your application can handle the signal as follows.

process.once("SIGHUP",function(){reloadSomeConfiguration();})

Please note that nodemon will send this signal to every process in the process tree.

If you are using , then each workers (as well as the master) will receive the signal. If you wish to terminate all workers on receiving a , a common pattern is to catch the in the master, and forward to all workers, while ensuring that all workers ignore .

if(cluster.isMaster){process.on("SIGHUP",function(){for(constworkerofObject.values(cluster.workers)){worker.process.kill("SIGTERM");}});}else{process.on("SIGHUP",function(){})}

Running non-node scripts

nodemon can also be used to execute and monitor other programs. nodemon will read the file extension of the script being run and monitor that extension instead of if there’s no :

nodemon --exec "python -v" ./app.py

Now nodemon will run with python in verbose mode (note that if you’re not passing args to the exec program, you don’t need the quotes), and look for new or modified files with the extension.

Using the config file, you can define your own default executables using the property. This is particularly useful if you’re working with a language that isn’t supported by default by nodemon.

To add support for nodemon to know about the extension (for Perl), the file would add:

{"execMap"{"pl""perl"}}

Now running the following, nodemon will know to use as the executable:

nodemon script.pl

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